Aerodynamic Heating with Turbulent Flow

Aerodynamic Heating with Turbulent Flow

This paper discusses approximate methods which have been used to calculate turbulent heating rates for a  flat plate case. Simple approximate methods are needed for a practical engineering analysis because of their short computing-time. Although solutions by computational  fluid dynamics (CFD) would give the most precise prediction,
CFD is still costly in terms of its long computing-time. The paper especially deals with turbulent flows. The matter of turbulent flows.

is critical for aerodynamic heating since the heating rate in turbulent  flows are much higher than that in laminar  flows. As shall be seen, the methods for turbulent heating are highly empirical owing to the lack of knowledge of the turbulent mechanism. However, it will be shown that those methods has been successfully used as practical tools. The paper begins with the basic concept of calculation procedure of aerodynamic heating. A presentation of three major engineering methods and discussion follows. The paper concludes with the prospect of approximate methods.

Aerodynamic heating is the heating of an object in a very high-speed  flow due to compression and friction within the boundary layer around the object. This matter is extremely important for high-speed vehicle design in terms of the thermal protection of a vehicle. In general, the flow around such a vehicle is likely to become turbulent due to the high Reynolds number, which strongly affects the thermal environment of the vehicle. As can be seen in figure 1, for a given Me and Re, the turbulent values of the Stanton Number, CH , are considerably larger than the laminar counterparts, which demonstrates the importance of predicting turbulent flows.

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Contents

  • Introduction
  • The recovery factor and the Stanton number for turbulent flow
  • Eckert’s reference enthalpy method
  • Van Driest II
  • The Spalding and Chi method

 

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